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Study shows the deep evolutionary roots of ‘gaze following’

first_imgEmail Share Share on Twitter Share on Facebook LinkedIncenter_img Pinterest Walking through Harvard Yard, you see it every day – one person stops to look up at a tree, perhaps trying to catch a glimpse of hawks that call the area home – and soon most passers-by are stopping to look in the same direction.It’s a phenomenon known as “gaze following” – and although it’s been demonstrated in dozens of species, researchers have theorized that it may develop in a unique way in humans, because it plays a critical role in learning and socialization.A new study, however, shows that gaze following in monkeys develops in a way that’s nearly identical to humans, suggesting that the behavior has deep evolutionary roots. The study is described in a May 11 paper published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. “Even though it seems like it’s a very simple thing, this is a foundational social and cognitive skill that humans have. And there has been little research on how this skill develops in other species,” said Alexandra Rosati, Assistant Professor of Human Evolutionary Biology and the first author of the study. “This is the largest study ever looking at gaze following in monkeys. We followed how this skill developed through their whole lifespan and examined the psychological mechanisms they were using to exhibit this behavior.”By studying more than 480 monkeys ranging from two weeks to 28 years old, Rosati and colleagues from Yale University and the University of Pennsylvania found that gaze following in macaques first appears a few months after birth, peaks among juveniles and then slowly declines into old age. The study also revealed – just as in humans – that female monkeys were more sensitive to gaze cues than males.“We found that monkeys are very similar to humans in the developmental pattern across their lifespan,” she said. “That we were able to find this pattern in species with very different life histories than our own suggests that this might be a very evolutionarily conserved pattern of social development.”To get those results, Rosati and colleagues conducted an unusual experiment – they travelled to Cayo Santiago, a small island off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico, inhabited by a colony of about 1,500 macaques that live in free-ranging groups.“We would approach a monkey when it was sitting calmly and try to attract their attention” she said. “As soon as the monkey looked at the experimenter, the experimenter would just look straight up. A second person would be filming the monkey, so we could see if the monkey also looked up.”Importantly, Rosati said, the team decided to conduct the study with macaques not because they were similar to humans, but because they were very different.“Compared to other primates, humans have a much longer juvenile period, we have a very long life span, and there are characteristics of human aging – like menopause – that are not shared with other primates,” Rosati said. “These monkeys are quite dissimilar from us in a lot of these life history characteristics, and we thought this is a great test of whether those human life history characteristics are tightly intertwined with this cognitive development pattern. If we could show that the monkeys’ social cognitive trajectory is very similar to ours, that lets us make inferences about what is driving this pattern in our species.”Going forward, Rosati said the hope is to correlate the differences in behavior among monkeys with variations in their social behavior and even to their genetic differences.“We want to integrate this data with what’s going on in real life,” Rosati said. “We want to see what’s happening with the 30 percent of juvenile monkeys that don’t follow gaze. Can we find genes that are associated with that behavioral difference? Similarly, is it the case that monkeys that gaze follow a lot as juveniles are more socially competent?”Ultimately, Rosati said, the study reveals that gaze following – while not unique to humans – likely serves as the foundation for a host of more advanced social skills humans rely on.“This is a critical skill for humans – it’s important for the theory for mind, communication, it’s how you learn about the culture you’re growing up in,” Rosati said. “And the fact that gaze following can be disrupted in individuals with autism suggests that early disruptions in how you respond to social cues can develop into a much more pervasive problem. The fact that monkeys show this sensitivity…suggests that humans are building upon this biologically shared propensity to respond to these cues. It’s not just something different in our species alone.”last_img read more

Rickman: Sustaining Our Better Nature … What’s Really Important?

first_imgBy JAMES RICKMANLibertarian CandidateLos Alamos County CouncilFor years, Los Alamos has appeared in numerous “best-places-to-live” surveys. It’s easy to understand why. Our community has numerous amenities that provide residents with outstanding quality of life. We enjoy recreation opportunities that cater to a diversity of activities ranging from hockey to horseback riding, and everything in between.Our crime rate is low, our schools are good, our air and water are clean, our open spaces are a treasure that provide opportunity for unstructured time alone or with friends, our night skies are mostly unpolluted by artificial light. We have a small-town feel that makes it easy to know our neighbors, sleep well at night, and work and play hard during the day.My partner Caroline and I have traveled extensively by car throughout the West, and we have been unable to find another community of comparable size that offers what Los Alamos does. Yet, I worry that our community leaders are forcing us down a path that puts at risk much of what makes Los Alamos so wonderful.Los Alamos is surrounded by federal land, which has made housing development challenging. Since the late 1980s, a parade of paid consultants has tried to convince our leadership that we can build ourselves out of high housing prices and into economic prosperity. Unfortunately, in a landlocked community, in a world with a burgeoning population, our supply of housing can never outpace demand, except during those inevitable periods when the Los Alamos National Laboratory budget shrinks, and the workforce is reduced. During these “bust” cycles, we complain that vacant properties are not put up for sale until the next boom, like the one we are currently experiencing.Thirty years later, hundreds of homes have been added to the property tax rolls. But Los Alamos’ population is nearly the same as it was in the late 80s, our retail sector is shrinking, housing prices are still high, and property taxes continue to account for a tiny share of the community’s overall income.Our County Council has adopted and endorsed the 2019 Housing Market Needs Analysis, which essentially confirms what we’ve known all along: our landlocked community cannot build enough housing to accommodate the entire Los Alamos National Laboratory workforce.Current and near-term development is expected to create about 1,000 new dwelling units. These new households will create pressures on our community aquifer, infrastructure and county services. I worry these mostly market-rate developments will do little to address the very real need for housing that is affordable to service sector employees. The lack of such employees is a real hurdle for retail business.I worry even more, however, about a concept in the study that states if the housing shortage persists, the County is willing to whittle away at the amenities that make Los Alamos among the best places to live:“Properties like the airport could be decommissioned over time,” the study nonchalantly states. “The golf course or stables could also be decommissioned over time or planned so that housing is only part of the site, as, for example, reducing the golf course to nine holes or designing a subdivision on open space adjacent to the stables that includes equestrian trails.”In other words, the current Council and county staff have endorsed amputating county-owned green space—an invaluable public asset—for the dubious benefit of a handful of people. The public can only assume that if the amenities mentioned by the study are on the table, then everything else is as well. Not only will this policy destroy amenities, it will divide the community as user groups rally around their favorite activities while expressing a willingness to destroy the pastimes of others.In our travels, we have come across a lot of small communities that gave into the siren’s song of building more and more housing in the name of economic development. In the many communities where this strategy failed, we heard the same refrain: “We wish we could get our green space back.” Once public assets enter private hands, they are gone for good.As someone who has served on the County Council, I know how easy it is to become hyper-focused on making a mark or leaving a legacy. After all, that’s what politicians are supposed to do, right? But 20 years later, I have concluded that the most important job of a County Council is to take the sober long view and make decisions that will help preserve the best aspects of our community for future generations.I believe community leaders should go beyond merely envisioning Los Alamos as a bedroom community for the national laboratory. We must dream bigger by getting back to the basics of sustaining excellence for the 18,000 residents who have chosen to make Los Alamos their home. Basic governance means making sure that local services and amenities are top notch, that public assets are protected, that our water and air is clean, our open spaces are green, and that people feel safe enough in their hometown to smile and greet their neighbors while passing each other on the streets of our vibrant community. Sustaining Los Alamos as a best place to live is not a bad legacy if you ask me.Those who would like to discuss anything I’ve said here with me, please visit www.vote4rickman.com for contact information.last_img read more

Linde acquires Carbo-V® Technology

first_imgGet instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270. Subscribelast_img

Upgrade planned for Sierra’s ultrasonic flow meter

first_imgSubscribe Get instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270.last_img

Dolphin Secures North Sea 3D Seismic Contract

first_imgDolphin has been awarded the first 2014 North Sea 3D seismic contract by an undisclosed client.The survey is scheduled to commence with one of our high capacity 3D vessels in early April 2014.“We are pleased that we are able to secure work based on our proven track record for advanced seismic surveys performed in 2013.“Despite a challenging start on the winter period, Dolphin continues to see a healthy demand for 2014, supported by a high tender activity in all key areas,” says Atle Jacobsen, CEO.[mappress]Press Release, October 03, 2013last_img read more

BW Offshore to take over Kudu field off Namibia

first_imgFPSO specialist BW Offshore has entered into a farm-out agreement with the National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia (NAMCOR) for a 56 percent stake in the Kudu license, offshore Namibia.BW said on Tuesday that the state-owned NAMCOR would hold the remaining 44 percent of the license. As a result of the transaction, BW Kudu, a wholly owned subsidiary of BW Offshore, will become operator of the license.BW Kudu will pay for past costs upon transfer of the field interest to the company. The final investment decision for the field is planned for the fourth quarter of 2017.Carl K. Arnet, CEO of BW Offshore, said: “BW Offshore will now start the work with the Namibian government, NAMCOR, NamPower (the Namibian power utility), large infrastructure investors, and other stakeholders to get this very exciting project to FID.“Kudu represents another opportunity for BW Offshore to take a proactive development role in a project that will produce for 15-25 years. Falling development costs after the 2014 drop in oil prices has helped in making the project economically feasible.”The Kudu field was discovered by Chevron in 1974 approximately 170 kilometers off the coast of Namibia. A further seven appraisal wells have been drilled since then by various oil companies including Shell and Tullow who subsequently withdrew from the project.The field is estimated to contain 1C-2C-3C contingent resource range of 755-1,330-2,308 billion standard cubic feet of gas respectively within the main reservoir. The gas from the Kudu Gas-to-Power project would be produced by a floating production unit before being exported by pipeline to a new 885 MW gas to power plant onshore Namibia.NAMCOR’s Managing Director Immanuel Mulunga said the project would play a fundamental role in shaping the energy dynamics of Namibia.“The Kudu Gas-to-Power Project is a key strategic power generation project for Namibia, which will significantly reduce reliance on imported power while at the same time accelerating economic development. It will not only enable Namibia to entirely cater for its power needs but become a net exporter of power to regional markets,” said Mulunga.Last December BW formed an oil and gas company to buy a stake in an offshore block in Gabon. Namely, BW through a joint venture agreed to buy 66.67% of the Dussafu production sharing contract offshore Gabon, owned by Harvest Energia, for $32 million in cash.last_img read more

Now is the time to borrow

first_imgTo continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe now for unlimited access Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our communitylast_img read more

An Overview of the RF Acoustic Wave Filters Patent Landscape

first_imgSAW is the main technology used in mobile telecommunication. Patenting activity started in the early 90’s and IP players are now well established. The IP activity is driven by Murata Manufacturing thanks to its impressive number of granted and pending patents.BAW patenting activity is showing more dynamism compared to SAW market segment. Broadcom has the strongest portfolio also consolidated thanks to its acquisition by Avago Technologies. BAW IP landscape is less established than SAW and KnowMade’s analysts expect a reshaping of this market segment during the next 5 years due to the race between the main IP challengers. For example both companies, Qualcomm and Qorvo are showing interesting IP activities focused on the 4G to 5G transition. This strategy will probably reshuffle the BAW IP landscape and enhance the competition.In the 1990s, SAW filter patent publications grew rapidly, heralding the development of the RF acoustic wave filter market in the 2000s. Since 2010, the market has consolidated, witnessing the flattening of the patent activity growth and the strengthing of the IP position of several companies. It is now essential to understand the RF acoustic filter patent landscape, the key patented technologies and players’ IP positions. Such knowledge can help anticipate the upcoming revolution, detect business opportunities, mitigate risks and make strategic decisions to strengthen one’s market position.Yole Group of Company including KnowMade, System Plus Consulting and Yole Développement is definitely involved in the RF FE Front-End industry. Based on its market, technology, patents, reverse engineering and manufacturing costing expertise and its knowledge of the “More than Moore” industry, analysts are answering the industry questionings with a comprehensive collection of reports.Click here to buy/download the report. In their latest report, “RF Acoustic Wave Filters” patent landscape analysis, KnowMade has investigated the patent landscape for RF acoustic wave filters including SAW, TC-SAW, BAW-FBAR, BAW-SMR, etc. to describe the related ecosystem. The technology intelligence & IP strategy consulting company has evaluated the IP position of key players through detailed analysis of their patent portfolios, including the legal status of the patents, their geographic coverage, their claimed inventions and their prior art contribution. IP strategy and IP blocking potential are also part of this analysis. Who are the key players involved? What are their IP positions? How will the IP landscape evolve? IP dynamics are changing and KnowMade’s analysts, combined with Yole Développement and System Plus Consulting expertise, put the RF acoustic wave filter players and their strategy in the spotlight. Acoustic wave filters patenting activity was very high between 2000 and 2006. Since then, it has progressively decreased and reached a plateau since 2010. The market is dominated by historical players with a strong international position that strongly reduce the penetration of new comers in this industry. Between 2017 and 2022, 8% CAGR is expected.The IP landscape is showing the same evolution, dominated by a limited number of large companies including Broadcom, Skyworks, Taiyo Yuden, Murata and more. After the fast growing period of 2000-2006, acoustic wave filter players have consolidated their position. The recent and numerous mergers and acquisitions have led to the strengthening of players portfolios. Broadcom’s acquisition by Avago Technologies is one good example. Moreover, as 5G communication protocols take shape, players are now developing filters that will address the requirements of the upcoming sub 6 GHz applications and future 5G mass markets. The number of frequency bands used in mobile telecommunications has seen a huge increase from 4 bands in the early 2000’s to more than 30 bands today. This number will only go up from here, specially with the introduction of 5G and other new wireless technologies. With the increase in the number of frequency bands being used by a device filters are one of the most important devices in the RF communication chain. The RF filter industry is expecting to see strong growth, with USD $16 billion revenue expected by 2022. This growth is the result of the need of new antennas and development of multiple carrier aggregation.According to one, Dr. Paul Leclaire, Patent Analyst at KnowMade, under this dynamic context, RF acoustic wave filters have appeared as the best solution to achieve filter operations in the sub 6 GHz regime. Acoustic wave filters offer low manufacturing cost as well as a high level of integration and performancesKnowMade is part of the Yole Group of Companies including Yole Développement and System Plus Consulting. The 3 partners have explored the RF world and done a value-added analyses on this sector which includes market trends, company positioning, IP landscape, technology roadmaps, manufacturing processes and related costs.last_img read more

Odion Ighalo’s Super Eagles Return Hinged On Someone Other Than Rohr – Agent

first_imgNew Manchester United signing Odion Ighalo owns the decision of returning to the Super Eagles of Nigeria, his agent Atta Aneke says.Ighalo announced his retirement from Nigeria’s men senior national team eight months ago but Coach Gernot Rohr recently revealed his desire to have the forward back in the Super Eagles’ set-up ahead of  the 2021 Nations Cup and 2022 FIFA World Cup qualifiers.However, agent to the former Watford striker Atta Aneke reportedly explained that Ighalo was only going to return if he wanted to. “For now we have not talked about a return to the senior national team,” said Aneke.“He is free to decide what he wants. It was his decision to retire from the team in the first place, so it’s up to him to rescind or stick by his decision.”Ighalo called time on his international career after Nigeria’s campaign at the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations.The 30-year-old finished the tournament as top scorer, with 5 goals and helped Nigeria pick a bronze medal. He joined Manchester United in a last-gap January transfer loan move from Chinese Super League side Shenghai Shenhua for the rest of the season.  RelatedExclusive: Ighalo Reveals Rohr Super Eagles Comeback Discussions (VIDEO)June 4, 2020In “Featured”Gernot Rohr Reacts To Odion Ighalo Man Utd Move (AUDIO)February 3, 2020In “England”INSIDE AFCON 2019: How Odion Ighalo Shut His Critics Up With His FeetJuly 20, 2019In “AFCON”last_img read more

New throwing ring coming for Stadium

first_imgTHE next time the country’s top discus thrower, Fedrick Dacres, competes in his pet event at the National Stadium, he will do so inside a new throwing ring.Dacres, the Doha World Athletics Championships silver medallist, pulled out of the event at last Saturday’s S.W. Isaac-Henry Invitational meet, citing a poor surface to the ring.“As throwers, we cannot glide inside the circle as there is no friction there, and I can’t believe this is how they are treating us as throwers,” the 25-year-old Dacres said last Saturday. SOON TO COME Yesterday, Major Desmon Brown, general manager of Independence Park Limited (IPL) and first vice president of the Jamaica Athletics Administrative Association (JAAA), Ian Forbes, both said a new ring could be in place soon.“We have known about this problem for some time ago and we contacted Mr Forbes from the JAAA. When we have any issue with sports, we speak with senior members from the respective sporting bodies so they can coordinate with coaches who have the technical knowledge in the respective areas,” Major Brown said. He then confirmed that work on the new ring is set to begin tomorrow.According to Forbes they knew about the problem (with the throwing ring) and it was a work in progress.“The issue came up at our last JAAA executive meeting and contact was made with IPL for the adjustment to be made,” Forbes said. He added that they had contacted three top local throwing coaches for their recommendations but they were unable to get a meeting involving all three.Forbes stated that some throwers had no problem with the ring but they had to listen to the concerns of the World Championships silver medallist.“Some athletes felt nothing was wrong with the surface but we really had to listen to Fedrick (Dacres) as he is the country’s premier thrower … he had a serious and genuine concern. We are about to meet with IPL and the technical team and once we get the recommendation, IPL is ready to execute their plans,” Forbes said.last_img read more